Blackheads and Whiteheads are both types of clogged pores (comedones). They develop as skin pores become clogged with excess oil, dead skin cells, and other dirt or debris. Both are classified as noninflammatory acne: meaning they are inactive lesions that often do not become infected with bacteria. Also, they will not elicit an inflammatory response from the immune system. The exact cause of both blackheads and whiteheads is unknown, but the development of both depends on a person’s unique hormones and genetics.
Moreover, whiteheads and blackheads are equally undesirable and bothersome. While sharing some characteristics, whiteheads and blackheads are visually very different.
What is a blackhead?
While often confused as dirt trapped in pores, a blackhead (or open comedones) is a clogged pore, filled with oil and dead skin cells. The difference is that a portion of the clogged pore at the skin’s surface is open. This partial opening exposes the plugged material to oxygen, turning it black through the resulting oxidation. This reason gives blackheads their trademark “black dotted” appearance.
What is a whitehead?
A whitehead (or closed comedones) is also a clogged pore that gets plugged in the same manner as a blackhead. The difference is that the surface of the whitehead is completely sealed. The filled material is trapped within the pore and does not come into contact with oxygen, so no oxidization occurs. Thus, the whitehead appears as a firm white bump.
Treating Blackheads & Whiteheads
Blackheads and whiteheads can often be treated effectively with similar over-the-counter ingredients found in high-quality acne-focused skincare products like benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid. They do, however, respond to different forms of treatments. For blackheads, it’s best to use an exfoliant along with an acne cleanser to fully unclog the pore and strip away plugged material. In the case of whiteheads, topical serums and lotions tend to work very well.
There are also professional in-office treatments that can help with more severe forms of acne, including acne facials, chemical peels, and light therapy. If needed, your dermatologist can also prescribe acne medications like Accutane.
While there is no sure way to prevent blackheads and whiteheads from forming, ultimately, there are best practices for limiting their development:
- Follow a sound skincare regimen
- Use oil-free and non-comedogenic makeup and skincare products
- Choose sheer powder foundation instead of heavy/greasy liquid foundation
- Change your pillowcases and clean your phone often
- Try not to touch your face unnecessarily
- Always remove your makeup before going to sleep
- Go with oil-free shampoo, conditioner, and shaving cream
- Stay well hydrated
- Eat a healthy well-balanced diet
- Try to reduce your daily stress
Very important: resist the urge to squeeze or pop either whiteheads or blackheads. While seeming like a quick solution, popping your pimple can cause new blisters, infection, scarring, and other long-term issues.
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